Thu. Nov 30th, 2023
colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer is the type of cancer that begins in the colon and rectal of the human body. The tumors that grow in the colon may be both benign and cancerous. A cancerous tumor in the colon may take a long time to develop or even spread. 

How do the tumors in colorectal cancer begin?

Usually the colorectal cancers begin as a small growth in the lining of the colorectal system. These are often referred to as polyps. But usually not all the polyps that grow are cancerous. It depends on the certain types of polyps. Different types of polyps include:

  • Hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps
  • Adenomatous polyps (adenomas
  • Sessile serrated polyps

How do the cancers of colorectal spread?

If a polyp develops cancer, it has the potential to gradually extend into the colon or rectums’s wall. The wall of these organs compromises multiple layers. The development of colorectal cancer occurs in the innermost layer known as the mucosa, from which it may progress through different layers. 

Once the cells begin to spread into the wall. They have the potential to spread into the lymph nodes and blood vessels. At times the colorectal cancer may spread to both near and far away lymph nodes. 

The spread and the depth of the cancer effect depends on the stage of colorectal cancer. 

What are some typical colorectal cancer symptoms and signs?

People with colorectal cancers can show different kinds of symptoms and these signs and symptoms may be different in different people. Following are the most common indications and symptoms of colorectal cancer:

  • Discoloration of the stool specially red or dark colored stool
  • Noticeable changes in the bowels
  • Frequent discomfort related to the abdomen like painful gas or bloating
  • A sudden weight loss
  • Constipation or diarrhea

In case these symptoms are seen for a long time, reach out to the cancer hospital in Coimbatore to get immediate treatment and avoid any major complications.

What are the primary causes of colorectal cancer risk?

There are different factors that can be related with colorectal cancer. Few major risk factors include:

  • Leading an inactive lifestyle
  • Being obese or overweight
  • Excess alcohol use
  • Smoking
  • Following a certain diet

What are the different stages involved in colorectal cancer?

Usually the cancer is divided into five different stages, and a few tests may help determine the staging. The staging of the cancer may also help in knowing the spread of the cancer. Stage 0 is the beginning and the stage 4 colorectal cancer is the most advanced. 

Stage 0:

The initial stage is often known as cancer in-situ. Only the mucosa, which is the innermost layer of the colon wall that may contain the cancer cells. 

Stage 1:

The cancer has spread past the mucosa and may have entered the muscle layer, but it is still in the wall lining the colon and rectum.  No nearby lymph nodes are affected by the cancer. 

Stage 2:

Although the cancer has spread past the mucosa and penetrates the layers nearby. At this stage the cancer is not spread to the lymph nodes. 

Stage 3:

Stage 3 cancer has advanced from the mucosa, the wall’s innermost layer, through the substances and the muscle layer next to it, and at times also to the neighboring lymph nodes. 

Stage 4:

Stage 4 colorectal cancer has migrated into distant organs like the lungs and also the liver in addition to the colon, or retum’s wall and to the nearby lymph nodes. 

What are the treatment methods usually recommended to treat stage 4 colorectal cancers?

The location, severity, and size of the tumors both internal and external of the colon will help determine the colorectal cancer treatments by your oncologist.


If the lungs or liver have been affected by the cancer, surgery may be recommended in certain cases. Patients with a small amount of spread to the organs relief from colorectal cancer is quite possible.

A cancer surgeon may remove the parts of the organs that may be affected by the cancer may be removed surgically. Although surgery may not be recommended in all cases but for certain cases it may be the right choice. 


Drugs are used in chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be either orally or through a vein in the form of an injection. Before surgery, chemotherapy may be used to make tumors smaller and easier to remove. When cancer cells are still present even after the surgery, chemotherapy can help in removing the other traces of colorectal cancer. 

In people who cannot undergo surgery, chemotherapy may be the only option. 


Radiation involves the use of high-energy beams that are used to shrink the cancer cells and in these shrunk cancer cells lose their ability to multiply. With radiation therapy it is important to choose surgery as radiation alone may not be helpful in killing the entire cancer cells.

Targeted therapies:

These treatment procedures involve the injection of certain substances that prevent the growth and spread of the cancer cells. This substance does not affect the normal cells hence it is an effective alternative treatment for cancer.

Important Takeaway:
Stage 4 colorectal cancer is the advanced form of cancer and usually not many people experience that stage. Usually cancer is detected in the second or third stage. But stage 4 cancer treatment is different and the goal of treatment is quite different. The treatment options recommended for an early stage cancer may not be ideal for stage 4 colorectal cancers. You may be recommended a combination of treatments for effective results to show. Consult the best oncologist in Coimbatore if you are looking for stage 4 colorectal cancer treatment from the experts.

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